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Table 2 Inequality in prevalence of selected health risk factors, 18–64 years, 20011

From: The socioeconomic gradient and chronic illness and associated risk factors in Australia

Health risk factors Rate2 Rate ratio by quintile of socioeconomic disadvantage of area3
   First Second Third Fourth Fifth
Current smokers - Male 30 582 1.00 1.40*** 1.55*** 1.71*** 1.95***
- Female 24 009 1.00 1.29*** 1.34*** 1.48*** 2.00***
- Persons 27 275 1.00 1.35*** 1.45*** 1.61*** 1.96***
Alcohol – High risk - Males 6 976 1.00 1.09 1.26* 1.26* 1.45***
- Females 2 127 1.00 0.59* 0.94 0.76 0.87
- Persons 4 537 1.00 0.93 1.16 1.12 1.22*
Did not exercise - Males 28 772 1.00 1.20** 1.36*** 1.52*** 1.68***
- Females 28 220 1.00 1.19** 1.29*** 1.35*** 1.65***
- Persons 28 494 1.00 1.20*** 1.32*** 1.43*** 1.66***
Underweight females 12 675 1.00 0.89 0.83* 0.72*** 0.91
Overweight/obese - Males 54 701 1.00 1.09* 1.11* 1.04*** 1.00
- Females 37 004 1.00 1.09 1.21*** 1.16** 1.17**
- Persons 45 798 1.00 1.09** 1.15*** 1.09** 1.06
  1. 1Survey respondents can be shown under more than one type of risk factor.
  2. 2Rate is the number of persons per 100,000 population estimated to be at risk from the health risk factor.
  3. 3The extent of any inequality is shown by the rate ratio, which expresses the ratio of the rate in each quintile to the rate in Quintile 1 (the most advantaged areas, with a rate ratio of 1.00); rate ratios differing significantly from 1.0 are shown with * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.
  4. Source: National Health Survey, ABS 2002