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Table 3 Definitions of health service providers.

From: Health facilities at the district level in Indonesia

Provider Description
Doctor (Dokter) Graduate of an Indonesian medical school licensed by the government.
Nurse (Perawat) Graduate of: (i) a Sekolah Perawat Kesehatan (SPK), students enter at the end of junior high school and the SPK training is regarded as equivalent to senior high school; OR (ii) an Akademi Perawatan for which students enter at the end of senior high school; OR (iii) Fakultas Ilmu Keperawatan, a university level course at the first degree level, there is a small number of second degree level graduates as well. All these institutions must be licensed by the government.
Midwife (Bidan) Graduate of: (i) Sekolah Bidan (SB), students enter at the end of junior high school and this training is regarded as equivalent to senior high school; OR (ii) Program Pendidikan Bidan (PPB) – entrants to this 1 year program have an SPK nursing qualification; OR (iii) Akademi Kebidanan (Akbid) for which students enter at the end of senior high school. Originally midwives were trained as SB until this program was closed in 1984. After a 5 year period of no training of midwives the government started training again in 1989 through the PPB as village midwives; the PPB was closed in 1998 and was replaced by the Akbid program.