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Table 3 Health status, health conditions, health actions and private health insurance status, adjusted for sociodemographic factors

From: Health, ageing and private health insurance: baseline results from the 45 and Up Study cohort

  Private health insurance
Health conditions No. % column % PHI RR crude* RR adjusted
Psychological distress      
   Low 64,669 66.1 69.8 1 1
   Moderate 13,223 13.5 62.8 0.90 (0.89, 0.91) 0.96 (0.95, 0.97)
   High 4,515 4.6 51.7 0.74 (0.72, 0.76) 0.87 (0.85, 0.89)
   Very high 2,736 2.8 47.1 0.68 (0.65, 0.70) 0.84 (0.81, 0.87)
Overall health      
   Excellent 14,867 15.2 75.0 1 1
   Very good 35,255 36.0 71.3 0.95 (0.94, 0.96) 1.01 (1.00, 1.02)
   Good 31,598 32.3 62.4 0.83 (0.82, 0.84) 0.97 (0.96, 0.98)
   Fair 10,875 11.1 48.5 0.65 (0.63, 0.66) 0.86 (0.85, 0.88)
   Poor 1,898 1.9 35.5 0.47 (0.44, 0.50) 0.71 (0.67, 0.75)
Functional limitation      
   No limitation 29,054 29.7 72.0 1 1
   Minor limitation 14,903 15.2 73.6 1.02 (1.01, 1.03) 1.01 (1.00, 1.03)
   Mild limitation 16,308 16.7 69.1 0.96 (0.95, 0.97) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
   Moderate limitation 14,600 14.9 61.2 0.85 (0.84, 0.86) 0.97 (0.95, 0.98)
   Severe limitation 13,146 13.4 47.2 0.66 (0.64, 0.67) 0.86 (0.84, 0.88)
Number of conditions      
   None 21,553 22.0 66.7 1 1
   1 22,727 23.2 67.8 1.02 (1.00, 1.03) 1.02 (1.01, 1.03)
   2 21,311 21.8 64.8 0.97 (0.96, 0.98) 1.02 (1.00, 1.03)
   3 10,023 10.2 61.8 0.93 (0.91, 0.94) 1.02 (1.00, 1.03)
   4 or more 5,798 5.9 61.0 0.91 (0.89, 0.93) 1.04 (1.01, 1.06)
Ever had §      
   Skin cancer 24,917 25.5 68.7 1.07 (1.06, 1.08) 1.04 (1.03, 1.05)
   Melanoma 5,299 5.4 65.6 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) 1.02 (1.00, 1.03)
   Other cancer 6,108 6.2 61.6 0.94 (0.92, 0.96) 0.99 (0.98, 1.01)
   Heart disease 11,475 11.7 60.0 0.91 (0.90, 0.93) 0.99 (0.98, 1.01)
   High blood pressure ** 34,107 34.9 62.8 0.95 (0.94, 0.96) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
   Stroke 3,102 3.2 50.2 0.76 (0.74, 0.79) 0.91 (0.88, 0.94)
   Diabetes 8,526 8.7 53.9 0.81 (0.80, 0.83) 0.92 (0.91, 0.94)
   Thrombosis 4,548 4.6 60.3 0.92 (0.90, 0.94) 1.00 (0.97, 1.02)
   Parkinson's disease 672 0.7 58.5 0.90 (0.84, 0.96) 1.01 (0.96, 1.07)
   None of the above 20,319 20.8 67.1 1.04 (1.03, 1.05) 0.98 (0.97, 0.99)
   Breast cancer 2,675 5.2 64.7 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 1.01 (0.99, 1.04)
   Enlarged prostate|| 7,576 16.5 67.8 1.04 (1.03, 1.06) 1.07 (1.06, 1.09)
   Prostate cancer|| 2,780 6.0 67.1 1.03 (1.00, 1.06) 1.09 (1.06, 1.11)
Family history §,††      
   Heart disease 45,014 46.0 66.3 1.03 (1.02, 1.04) 1.02 (1.01, 1.03)
   High blood pressure 48,909 50.0 67.1 1.06 (1.05, 1.07) 1.02 (1.01, 1.03)
   Stroke 25,670 26.2 65.4 1.00 (0.99, 1.02) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
   Diabetes 21,981 22.5 62.9 0.96 (0.95, 0.97) 0.98 (0.97, 0.99)
   Dementia 15,877 16.2 68.3 1.06 (1.05, 1.07) 1.03 (1.02, 1.04)
   Parkinson's disease 4,561 4.7 65.5 1.01 (0.98, 1.03) 0.99 (0.97, 1.01)
   Severe depression 12,020 12.3 64.0 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) 0.97 (0.96, 0.98)
   Severe arthritis 20,760 21.2 63.2 0.96 (0.95, 0.97) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
   Breast cancer 10,991 11.2 66.0 1.02 (1.00, 1.03) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02)
   Bowel cancer 13,471 13.8 66.5 1.02 (1.01, 1.04) 1.02 (1.01, 1.03)
   Lung cancer 10,115 10.3 62.3 0.95 (0.94, 0.97) 0.98 (0.97, 1.00)
   Melanoma 8,689 8.9 67.9 1.05 (1.03, 1.06) 1.00 (0.99, 1.02)
   Osteoporosis 13,830 14.1 68.6 1.06 (1.05, 1.08) 1.03 (1.02, 1.04)
   Hip fracture 9,720 9.9 66.8 1.03 (1.01, 1.04) 1.01 (1.00, 1.03)
   Prostate cancer 9,960 10.2 68.5 1.06 (1.04, 1.07) 1.03 (1.02, 1.04)
   Ovarian cancer 3,482 3.6 61.9 0.95 (0.92, 0.97) 0.99 (0.97, 1.02)
Operations §      
   Removal of skin cancer 25,930 26.5 68.4 1.07 (1.06, 1.08) 1.04 (1.03, 1.05)
   Knee replacement 3,829 3.9 64.2 0.99 (0.96, 1.01) 1.10 (1.08, 1.13)
   Hip replacement 3,026 3.1 66.6 1.02 (1.00, 1.05) 1.12 (1.09, 1.15)
   Gallbladder removed 9,803 10.0 60.5 0.92 (0.91, 0.94) 0.99 (0.97, 1.00)
   Vasectomy|| 10,998 23.9 71.9 1.13 (1.12, 1.15) 1.02 (1.01, 1.03)
   Part of prostate removed|| 2,661 5.8 67.3 1.03 (1.00, 1.06) 1.10 (1.07, 1.13)
   Whole prostate removed|| 1,653 3.6 71.6 1.10 (1.06, 1.13) 1.12 (1.09, 1.15)
   Hysterectomy 14,827 28.6 62.9 0.96 (0.94, 0.97) 1.02 (1.01, 1.03)
   Both ovaries removed 5,185 10.0 62.4 0.96 (0.94, 0.98) 1.03 (1.01, 1.05)
   Sterilisation 14,311 27.6 64.1 0.98 (0.97, 1.00) 0.99 (0.98, 1.00)
   Prolapse repair 5,916 11.4 63.9 0.98 (0.96, 1.00) 1.04 (1.03, 1.06)
Screening history §      
   Bowel cancer screening 46,357 47.4 70.9 1.18 (1.17, 1.19) 1.12 (1.11, 1.13)
   Breast cancer screening 45,708 88.1 66.5 1.24 (1.21, 1.27) 1.16 (1.13, 1.19)
   Prostate disease screening|| 31,549 68.6 69.1 1.20 (1.18, 1.22) 1.14 (1.12, 1.16)
  1. * Relative risk of having any private health insurance
  2. Adjusted for age, sex, remoteness, income, education, aborginality, relationship status and country of birth
  3. Reference category § Reference category = No
  4. ||Males only Females only
  5. ** Excluding high blood pressure during pregnancy
  6. †† Whether mother, father, brother or sister had the disease
  7. Percentages do not consistently total to 100% due to missing values